"У мене є бабуся."
Translation:I have a grandmother.
бабуся/бабця are dimunitive forms of баба, so should be translated as granny, not grandmother
But no one really use "баба" to refer to his grandmother. Am I wrong?
Oh, well, usage may differ in different regions.
My grandparents were always баба і дідо. They emigrated to Canada 50 years ago, and I'm finding that a lot of the little Ukrainian things I learned from them and my mom are considered quite old-fashioned. Also, my aunt is тета Надя not тітка!
In Polish we use that construct ("у мене є") as well, but often it means "there is ... at my place (where I am)", so "U mnie jest babcia" would mean "My grandma is at my place (presumably home)". Is there a context where "у мене є" would mean the same in Ukrainian? If not, do you have any equivalent?
To say that you should omit "є".
У мене бабуся - The grandma is at my place. У мене дома бабуся - The grandma is at my home.
I would also reverse the word order: Бабуся у мене. That would be definitely understood as "The grandma is at my place."
Ukrainian doesn't really use articles (the/a/an), but English does. An article is necessary in English here, but there are circumstances where an article is not required, e.g. "I have grandparents" (plural noun) or "I have courage" (abstract noun). However! Even these circumstance /can/ have articles; it just changes the meaning, e.g. "I have the grandparents" refers to some specific grandparents relevant to the conversation rather than stating a fact about your biological grandparents. For that matter, "I have the courage (to do something)" means that you have /sufficient/ courage rather than some unspecified quantity of courage.
It can get complicated, but I'm sure if you search for it online, you can find some good resources (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/1/)
Why "a" grandmother not "the" grandmother. How many grandmothers can I have? Both of them are well-defined grandmothers.
That would be technically correct, but it would probably be a weird conversation. If you have "the grandmother," it almost certainly implies that it's not /your/ grandmother.
You could get away with that in conversational American English; however, it would sound much more natural to contract the first two words: "I've got a grandmother." I'm not sure if it's colloquial though. If it is a colloquial expression, then they probably don't want to encourage it.