"Li komencas studi Esperanton."
Translation:He is starting to study Esperanto.
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I am not a native English speaker, but I'd say that in English is far more common to say that you learn a language than that you study a language. To study, in English, has more to do with academic studies, so if you say that you study Spanish, for instance, you are more likely to be following academic studies on Spanish at university, rather than learning by yourself or going to a language school. So, even though it is obvious that studi and study share a common steem, I think that "He is starting to learn Esperanto" should be consider a valid answer, since it actually is the more natural in English.
This is a slightly odd sentence
Studi here means a rigorous, structured study of Esperanto -- like a research project perhaps for a university. So, he's beginning a study of Esperanto.
It could also be that he's going off to college to major in Esperanto.
And no, it certainly does NOT mean that he's starting to "learn" Esperanto. It also doesn't mean that he's starting his evening session of working on Esperanto. Both these ideas are expressed with lerni Esperanton.