I think it's roughly like the difference between "many" and "much" in English -- "kelkaj" I usually see in the plural, for countable things such as rules, so you could translate it as "several" as well as "some", while "iom (da X)" is usually with a singular, for uncountable things such as water, so you could translate it as "a bit of" as well as "some".
So there is no simple way to determine whether -ul- in an Esperanto word is a suffix meaning "person" or a part of the root, like here. Right?
Exactly. You need to learn for each word what the basic root is and whether or not there are any affixes involved.
Another example: putino = female prostitute. -in- makes things female, so surely that's a suffix? But nope; the root is putin-. Put- is a well (that you draw water from), so a putino could be a female well.
Thank you! And after the example you gave me, I will never think about a certain head of state the same way again :)
How would one say a male prostitute? and would a female prostitute be putinino?
PIV defines putin/o as amoristino, so I suppose an amoristo or vira amoristo would be a male prostitute - and putino seems to be female by definition, meaning a putinino would be as redundant as a damino, hetajrino, or megerino.
Alternatively, you could go by PIV's entry for ĉiesul(in)o = amorist(in)o and use ĉiesulo for a male prostitute.
And there's a root prostitu- "to prostitute", from which you could form sinprostituanto, or prostituito.
Wow, ĉiesulino? A woman belonging to everyone? Seems like an offensive way of putting it! Is it considered derogatory in Esperanto?
Another example: putino = female prostitute.
please, be very careful with this example in Russia.
Regulation (reguligo) comes from the word "regulo (rules)" and "-ig" (to make ...). Both "regulo" and "reguligo" have different meanings
Regulo : An action to set, to do, to act with something that already have been set (that's what we called rules) Reguligo : A guide to do the rules.
In a simple word, regulo (rules) is a part of reguligo (regulations)
Examples : "Mia universitato havas striktajn regulojn" with "La reguligo por hejtadi per termostato" or maybe "Tiuj reguloj jam estas listigita en la reguligoj de la universitato".
Hope that answer your questions. Havu bonan tagon! ;)