Not sure about where to put the 'de' after gosta
Do we write 'Gosta de' when showing that somebody likes something as 'de' shows possession?
Eu gosto de gatos - I like cats
Are there any sentences that we don't have to write 'de' at the end of gosta?
Is 'de' the masculine version of showing possession, and 'do' the feminine? Or is there no difference? Also, do you change which one you use depending on who is speaking, or what you're speaking about?
For example, the sentence 'O trabalho dela é melhor do que o meu' means 'Her work is better than mine'. Are we using the word 'do' because we're talking about a woman, or are we using it because the writer/speaker of that sentence is female?
One more thing, is there any reason why in the sentence above that 'do' is added after 'é melhor' ? I would have thought that this would be the sentence, 'O trabalho dela do é melhor que o me'.
1) *Eu gosto de gatos.
I can't think of a situation where gostar isn't followed by "de", so you just have to use it everytime.
"De" is a form without contraction, and it's used when the noun that comes after doesn't carry an article:
- Eu gosto de gatos. I like cats.
- Eu gosto do(s) gato(s). I like the cat(s).
- Eu gosto da(s) gata(s). I like the female cat(s).
As you can see, do (de+o, masc.), da (de+a, fem.), -s for the plurals.
2) *... melhor do que o meu
"Do que" (than) is a conjunction and it doesn't vary according to what comes before or after - it just "is". You can't separate the elements of this conjunction - it needs to sit in between the two clauses, just like the English equivalent "than" does.
You can leave "de" out if you don't have the object:
- Você gosta de gatos?
- Sim, eu gosto!
The preposition is part of the indirect object. It's necessary when the object is present in the sentence, but if you don't put the object, you don't use the preposition.
Different from English, Portuguese does not appreciate ending sentences with prepositions at all.
Some people might do that with certain prepositions, but they must really know what they are doing. "Sobre (about)" is a good candidate for that.
Just to add a little to Luis's comment, there is at least one case where "gostar" is not followed by "de"; this sentence, for example:
- "Ele não gosta que eu converse com outras pessoas" (He does not like that I talk to other people)
See the discussion here: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/706230
Thanks for that very pertinent correction, David - I've said many time you're more into the workings of the language than I am :)
Do you think it's safe to say that when "gostar" calls for a direct object it will need "de" afterwards?
Haha! I wish I had your native speaker knowledge. Actually, there is another very weird way of using gostar where it takes a direct object (and, not surprisingly, is marked in dictionaries as little used):
- Espero que gostes as situações mais prazerosas (Aulete)
- Gostar os prazeres da vida (Houaiss)
- Ainda não gostou essas delícias (Michaelis)
See the Aulete version here: http://www.aulete.com.br/gostar
There's been requirement of this usage in university entrance exams???? Oh man.....those guys can't be serious.....
Of all weird and erudite things, I have never ever, not a single time at all, heard or read such a thing.....
"Gostar" may have once meant "provar" first and foremost (see http://bit.ly/1UGf5Db), but I can't think of ever hearing someone say that (it's no wonder it shows up in 7th place out of 9 here: http://www.priberam.pt/dlpo/gostar).
That's something I'll gladly forget - Telling "Eu gostei a cerveja gelada" sounds more like innuendo than something the average person would say :)
That's foreign to me - I'd use "apreciar" ou "gostar de" in those cases, but I can see from Daniel's reply that it's not an EP vs. BP issue :) Shared transatlantic confusion right there!
are you sure the verb is this case is not "gozar"?? I have never heard of gostar with that meaning.
I'm not making it up. See:
- http://www.aulete.com.br/gostar (item 11)
- http://tinyurl.com/owrhk72 (item 7)
- http://www.dicio.com.br/gostar/ (entry shown as v.t.d.)