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Drawing on davidalso's post, I guess a "casaco" is a more specified term for a coat whilst an "agasalho" - as can be seen in his very nice post - is not. Also, but this is nothing more than imagination gone loose, the former ressembles a bit the British "Cossack". Which, for the sake of better retention, might be perceived as alluding to those Russians who may very well have had to wrap themselves up quite well.. :)
It is 'Portuguese' - a language name is often not in one-to-one agreement with where it is spoken, cf. 'English' in Australia and the US. Also, from a practical point of view, Brazilian Portuguese is probably going to be more useful to learn (hugely larger economy, population, etc). I therefore see nothing wrong with learning Brazilian vocabulary, even if you want the European Portuguese vocabulary as a base. This is unless you had some special reason to only learn European Portuguese (a Portuguese girlfriend, for example).
Agasalho is any kind of warm clothing. It's very hard to translate it exactly to English when it's singular, but the plural agasalhos could very nicely be translated as "warm/winter clothes".
Casaco is specifically "coat".
"Abrigo" is not common at all in Brazil, I have only seen this when buying trekking/camping equipment.
Often, the word "abrigo" means only "shelter/camp". This is common.
oi, amanda, você realmente escreve bem mas precisa dar uma melhorada..."certinho", "...é só me adicionar...", ao invés de começar "ensinando", tente estudar junto com alguém primeiro... notei que você escreve muito "serto", o correto é "certo", com "c". quando escrevemos com "s" estamos sendo irônicos, quer dizer que a pessoa se acha certa mas na verdade está errada, entende? bons estudos!!
ah, e evite usar os atalhos...você perde muito com isso.
Ok, so my question is this: is there a significant difference between 'Do you have a coat?' and 'You have a coat?'. I guess the first is more clearly a question, but with punctuation/intonation to indicate that the second is also a question, is there a substantive difference? But also, is there a way that--apart from how it translates into English--there's a difference to native Portuguese speakers?
For the English part of your question, when relying solely on intonation it becomes an "echo" question, which can show surprise (for which no answer may be sought) or be seeking clarification but pretty much requires a previous interaction for context and that does not work in all cases of questioning.
Another is kind of sloppy English by just dropping the structure that creates a question (and mostly only allows for limited answers):
A questioning tone of voice can turn a statement into a yes-no question. Such questions have the structure of a declarative sentence. The tone of voice has become particularly common, especially among young people, in recent decades.
But, most of all, is that intonation is not easily recognized by computers (especially since DL does not penalize based on basic punctuation and really only sees the accents... and sometimes the possessives).