"Will you let her go with her friends?"
Translation:Sen onun arkadaşlarıyla gitmesine izin verecek misin?
This lesson ist just too difficult! You are saying yourself in the introduction, that the gerund is one of the most difficult things to master in the Turkish language. Rather than helping us along with simple phrases, so we can learn how to use and form the gerund, we have to construct very complex sentences right from the start. I never manage and find it very frustrating. Luckily, the mobile app is much easier to handle and I tend to do the difficult lessons by app - with the effect that I'm not really learning :-( Overall, Duolingo is great and I have recommended to quite a number of my friends, but some lessons are really horrible, and this is one of them.
Well, there are plenty of simpler sentences in the lesson, such as "senin sevmeni istiyorum" - but these sentences are not being used for translation into Turkish, which of course are the most challenging exercises. For translation we ended up having the complicated ones like above.
It is just the sentences being very complex. When something new and complicated is being introduced it would be easier to have a simple phrase where you can focus on the new thing. Look at the phrase we are discussing here. It has a very complex verbal construction (" to let someone go" is challenging even without a gerund) plus it is a question. And the others sentences I had to translate where equally difficult. This is what I found frustrating.
Oh, I definitely agree that sometimes the Duolingo lessons are not enough to fully grasp certain aspects of Turkish.
One thing I could do is give you some resources.
If you want to search for a specific word or grammatical structure, you could use Tatoeba. It's a free site that allows you to search for translated sentences, for example between English and Turkish.
You could search for something like "*mesine" or "*masına" and get a lot of example sentences. Don't forget that the sentences are added by users and may be wrong. Overall I've found the quality quite satisfactory.
On the first page you have "Gitmesine izin ver." = "Let him/her go.". It's much less complicated than the Duolingo sentence. I hope it helps. There are 979 sentences with "*mesine" and 1157 with "*masına".
Check out this link: http://en.wiki.tatoeba.org/articles/show/text-search# so you know how to search efficiently.
Another resource I highly recommend is the grammar book "Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar". If you can't find it, message me so I can send it to you. You might find it too complex if you aren't familiar with some linguistic terms, but with a little practice it shouldn't be hard to navigate.
gitmek = the infinitive verb form "TO GO"
gitme = the gerund verb form "GOING"
gitme-si = adding the 3rd person possessive ending "HER GOING"
gitme-si-n- = adding the buffer consonant -n-. This is used when a noun has more than one suffix added on. (Remember, the gerund form of a verb acts grammatically like a noun--this is true in English too.) We already have the suffix -si and we are about to add another one, so the -n- goes in between
gitme-si-n-e = adding the dative suffix -a/e, "TO HER GOING." In the context of the sentence, this is because the expression is more literally "Will you give [sen ... verecek misin] permission [izin] to her going [gitmesine] with her friends [onun arkadaşlarıyla]"
In the "Tıps & Notes" for Possessives, it says, "If you add a case to a noun with the 3rd person possessive suffix, it will always have a buffer -n-."
Arkadaşları has the possessive suffix, but it is given the buffer -y- before the instrumental case suffix. Is the instrumental case an exception to the rule?
It's a bit offtopic, but I would be interested to know whether native speakers can understand sentences that are completely wrong? In Germany we mostly understand sentences where everything is grammatically wrong, what can be done wrong. Would anyone understand the following sentence: "Onu arkadaşlar ile gitmesi için izin vereceksin mi?"
Think of a sentence within a sentence. For example 'do you (by any chance) know?'. Then break it down. Sen (onun arkadaşlarıyla gitmesine) izin verecek misin? What we are not yet accustomed to is sound punctuation. It helps to break up the sentence when you listen. When we translate it, it is just one noise.
arkadaşlar = (the) friends
onun arkadaşları = her / his friends
You are right there is no accusaative case here. The 'ı' of 'arkadaşları' belongs to 'onun', it's the possessive form.
onun arabası = her / his car
annem arabası = my mother's car (genitive/possessive construction)