What is the difference between "taksi" and "pensi"?
"Taksi" will be hard for me to remember, it reminds me of "taxi" or "taxes" much more than "to think"...
Not all words in Esperanto correlate to a similar sounding word in English. "Taksi" is one of them, so you'll just have to memorize it. It's meaning is to rate, to appraise, to estimate. "Pensi" is to ponder, to contemplate, to ruminate. Both might be translated as "to think" but their meanings are quite distinct.
After surfing round wiktionary quite a bit (taksi really does mean taxi in quite a lot of languages) I'm pretty sure it's from the Latin taxō (“I handle, estimate, judge”) and related to words about tax in a number of European languages. For instance: https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/taksa
The use of "taksi" seems quite like the use of "reckon" in Australian English and some kinds of UK English.
My impression is that "taksi" is more like an assessment or a valuation. In this sentence Adamo is assessing the risk and concludes that it is dangerous. In Dutch we have the word "taxeren", which means to estimate the value of something e.g. to assess the value of a house or a car.
Would this sentence make more sense with "ke ĝi estas"? Or is this sentence completely unambiguous to an Esperanto speaker?
Adamo taksas, ke estas danĝere.
Adamo thinks that it is dangerous, the action or whatever, it is not specified what we're talking about, it is just a general statement, thus without a pronoun.
Adamo taksas, ke ĝi estas danĝera.
Adamo thinks that it is dangerous, here it is a specific it, it might be the spider under his bed or it might be the basilisk standing on his lawn, but it is commonly understood by the speaker and the listener as to what this it refers to.
I'm asking if the sentence "Adamo taksas, ke ĝi estas danĝere" would be better than "Adamo taksas, ke estas danĝere". Does the "ĝi" in the first sentence clear up an ambiguity or is it understood implicitly in the second?
"Adamo taksas, ke ĝi estas danĝere" is not correct. You could say "Adamo taksas, ke ĝi estas danĝera". And then, the question arises what do you mean by "ĝi".
ĝi has to refer to some object or concept. In English sentence, it doesn't actually refer to anything at all.
I read this as "Adam thinks that he is dangerous". The the verb always refers to an "it" without a pronoun?
"Adam thinks that he is dangerous" would be "Adamo taksas ke li estas danĝera". Your interpretation is not possible for the given sentence for two reasons, which are both discussed in the thread started by tvoiles (please read vikungen's post).
I don't understand your question: verbs do not really refer to anything. And what do you mean by an "it" without a pronoun?
in the sub clause, or second clause (I don't know the term), 'ke estas dangxere' there is no pronoun, so the subject of the sentence is implied. My question was, why an implied 'it', but not an implied 'he', but I see vikungen has answered my question. Estas on its own is always a general statement, with no pronoun implied, is that correct? In some languages it would be very ambiguous to have a verb without a pronoun, as it could be interpreted as referring to an it, he, she, or even they.
Yes, you understand it correctly: estas without a pronoun always refers to an empty subject (or as it is also called, dummy pronoun 'it').
This means that you cannot drop the pronoun subject in Esperanto, as you do, for example, in Italian or Greek. But that should be clear first of all from the fact that Esperanto verbs don't conjugate...
Why is this an adverb? If "it is dangerous", then dangerous should be an adjective, no? If the sentence was "It was acting dangerously", then I understand the purpose of the adverbial form. Help me clarify please?
When there's no noun to modify, the descriptive word is expressed as an e-word (often called an "adverb.")
Ok, so there is a specific rule regarding this. I thought it was an "exception" or something. So all I have to remember is that when no noun is in the sentence, just use an adverb instead of the adjective.
Supozi carries the idea of an assumption made.
Taksi carries the idea of an estimation based on facts and experience.
In fact, yes, in the deep dark bowels of etymology - by way of Old French - the English word "tax" is related to the same Latin root as Esperanto taksi even though they mean different things.