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If this is a natural sentence, it would be helpful if someone could explain when you would say "Eu gosto do período da noite" and not just "eu gosto da noite". In English it is screaming for more context, like "I like the period of the night when ____" (e.g. "when the streets are empty")
that's because you didn't specify which time at night, 10pm? 3:56am?
Seriously though, 'the time' (as opposed to just 'time' in English means clock time, not a period/era/stretch of time like it can in other languages, so 'the time at night' does not mean período da noite.
Neither can that be translated into 'the period of night' though, because that isn't a thing (at least not one I've heard in 40 years speaking English).
Adding to the complexity! I still think 'the' still (mostly) works although as you say there seems to be an in-between category. You still don't say "I have the good time", although you do say "we had the best time", but then you can't have 'a best' of anything. Maybe those and "the time the sun is going down" still count as specific units of time or something?