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Articles always come before nouns. Just like in English. You will never see "the" without a noun.
The car, the table, the one. - There's always a noun, articles cannot exist by themselves.
See: "Eu os ouço" - Ouço is a verb, so there is no possibility that "os" would be an article.
Simply to reinforce this great explanation, sometimes when you come across with other examples you can try to change o, os, a, as and put it at the end of sentence with its respective just to know if it's an article or pronoun. The sentence will make sense if it is a pronoun. Despite of this is not corret in portuguese, however I think it's a good way to learn these nuances of different languages.
o = ele
a = ela
os = eles
as = elas
e.g.: Eu os ouço = Eu ouço eles
I hear you = Eu te ouço = Eu ouço-te = Eu ouço você
I hear him = Eu o ouço
I hear her = Eu a ouço
There are some variations in pronouns when they are the object or the complement of a sentence.
So far you are used to the "pronomes do caso reto" (straight case), they are used for subjects: "Eu, tu/você, ele, nós, vós/vocês, eles"
But when they are the complement, they turn into the "pronome oblíquo" (oblique pronoun). You can compare them like you can compare "he" with "him" and "she" with "her". (Him and Her would be "oblique pronouns" - I don't know how they are called in English).
I'll try to make a table like this: (1 subject - 2 reflexive - 3 direct object - 4 indirect obect - 5 with preposition)
Eu - Me - Me - Me - Mim
Tu - Te - Te - Te - Ti
Ele(a) - Se - O(A) - Lhe - Si
Nós - Nos - Nos - Nos - Nós
Vós - Vos - Vos - Vos - Vós
Eles(as) - Se - Os(As) - Lhes - Eles(Elas)
2 - Reflexive pronouns are used when the subject performs an action towards himself. (Ele se cortou = He cut himself / Eu me vi no espelho = I saw myself in the mirror / Tu te cortastes = you have cut yourself)
3 - Direct objects are used when the verb doesn't need a preposition. These can be put together with the verb using a hyphen. (Eu o fiz - I did it / Pegue-o = Take him / Ele a vê = he sees her) - We also accept ele/ela/eles/elas here in most cases.
4 - Indirect objects are used when the verb needs a preposition, but this version of the pronoun removes the preposition (Dê-lhe o carro = Give him the car - See next example to understand this completely)
5 - These are also indirect objects, but the preposition is needed together with the pronoun. (Dê o carro a mim = Give the car to me)
Good explanation the one you post later, but you include:
Eu - Me - Me - Me - Mim Tu - Te - Te - Te - Ti Ele(a) - Se - O(A) - Lhe - Si Nós - Nos - Nos - Nos - Nós Vós - Vos - Vos - Vos - Vós Eles(as) - Se - Os(As) - Lhes - Eles(Elas)
And not "você / vocês". As far as I know it's a polite way of second person and is conjugated as the third, that's why I think that "os" could be for "you" => vocês.
Well....you are probably right. Personally, I don't like using "o" for second person (even if "você" uses 3rd person conjugations). The common choice in Rio is "te".
By the way "você" is not polite, it's very common, more common than "tu".
Polite ways use "o senhor/a senhora", mainly.
In Portugal it is a polite way, less formal than "o senhor/a senhora". Perhaps is different in Brazil...
A valid translation would be: I hear you (plural), that's correct? because is specifying plural, but not an specific group of people, In spanish: Yo los escucho....if we finish the sentence: Yo los escucho a USTEDES (you), also, Yo los escucho a ELLOS/AS (them)....so, both are right, but your correct sentence by default just let you pick 1 option, "I HEAR THEM". Shouldn't you add the next answer as correct? It would be very helpfull, just look at the discuss sentence, that tells you that something is not right. Wait for your answer, thanks for the attention.