The women are reading the newspaper. Some infinitives don't exist in this language.
I don't think so - "news" is more "novaĵoj". Ĵurnalo implies a physical item to me, a newspaper, rather than the abstract news that is reported in a newspaper (or a television show or a website or ...).
Why is this plural? Is not "the women" apointing to a specific women? Or is it "women" in general? (I am not english native speaker)
'The' is not used for nouns when talking in general. It would be "Women read the newspaper" 'The women' is a specific group of women.
The newspaper is read by women is the same as the women read the newspaper.
There's a lot of ways to say the same thing, each of which has to be inputted manually.
I would suggest not.
One sentence is active, one is passive.
Esperanto also has active and passive voice.
In general, translate an Esperanto active sentence into an English active one, an Esperanto passive one into an English passive one.
You can't always translate word for word.
"are" here has no separate meaning; it's just a helping verb used to form the present continuous tense "are reading" of the verb "read".
In Esperanto, this is often expressed simply with the present tense legas, which doesn't need a helping verb.
If you explicitly want to point out the on-going nature of the activity, you could use the progressive: la virinoj estas legantaj. That form does use a helping verb, which happens to be esti (to be) as well.
But unlike in English, the explicit progressive forms are not required for on-going actions.
There was a glitch. The system asked me to type: Ili estas belaj leteroj. It marked that correct, then it asked me to type the same thing again: Ili estas belaj leteroj. It marked that wrong and reported that I was supposed to have typed: La virinoj legas la ĵurnalon.
So there was a glitch in the DuoLingo Matrix, and I've written about it here in the hope that some administrative person will check it out.
I was doing the "accusative" workshop.
The very next spoken thing I was asked to type was: La virinoj legas la ĵurnalon. That was marked wrong and the system informed me that I should have typed: Mi manĝas pomon.
I see the pattern. The spoken phrases are one list-item behind the typed phrases. I'm going to log out and log back in to see whether that fixes the glitch.