Georgian lesson: Conjugations-Subject verb prefixes and suffixes
Georgian conjugations are in fact pretty hard. I'll try to explain them as I can. In Georgian there exist two types of verbs-subject verbs and object verbs. Let's start with subject verb conjugations. As you know, subject is the one who's acting. Here are the subject verb conjugations:
ყოფნა (kofna)-to be:
მე ვარ (Me var)-I am ("ვ" (V) is a prefix for Georgian subject verbs first person singular. It applies for all Georgian subject verbs)
შენ ხარ (Shen khar)-You are ("ხ" (Kh) is a prefix for some of Georgian subject verbs second person singular. As you see, verb "to be" is one of those verbs that require "ხ" (Kh) as a prefix)
ის არის (Is aris)-He/She is ("ს" (S) is a suffix for most of Georgian subject verbs third person singular. Some verbs also use suffix "ა" (A))
ჩვენ ვართ (Chven vart)-We are ("ვ" (V) prefix is also used for all Georgian subject verbs first person plural, but it also gets a suffix "თ" (T) to define it's plural)
თქვენ ხართ (Tqven khart)-You are ("ხ" (Kh) is also used in some Georgian subject verbs second person plural as a prefix. Remember like this: if you see "ხ" (Kh) prefix in Georgian subject verb second person singular, know that it will also appear in Georgian subject verb second person plural. The same way as in first person plural, second person plural also uses suffix "თ" (T) to determine it's plural)
ისინი არიან (Isini arian)-They are ("ან" (An) is one of the suffixes that subject verb third person plural uses. You may also see suffixes "ენ" (En), "ნენ" (Nen), "ნ" (N), "ეს" (Es))
prefix "ხ" (Kh) is used in second person only in subject verbs: ყოფნა (Kofna) -to be, წასვლა (Ts'asvla)-to go, მოსვლა (Mosvla)-to come, გადასვლა (Gadasvla)-to cross/to pass, გადმოსვლა (Gadmosvla)-to cross, შესვლა (Shesvla)-to enter, გასვლა (Gasvla)-to get out, შემოსვლა (Shemosvla)-to come in, გამოსვლა (Gamosvla)-to come out.
Other verbs in second person singular use only verb's basis, in plural only suffix "თ" (T).
Thank you for reading the post :) I know it is very hard, but it's Georgian's basics :D But don't worry, even if you make mistakes, after time you will accustom to it :)
The link to all the posts: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/9660890