I am having a hard time with prepositions. Even though I am getting somewhere after each lesson, still I feel like I do not have a good grasp on Norwegian prepositions. Especially "på","om","i","av" usages can become confusing. So, would you recommend me materials delving into prepositions? Exhaustive list with examples would be awesome :)
Also do you know any Norwegian forums that people share their ideas about subjects like news, games, sports, movies etc.
What's bouncing around in my head for best translations:
på - "on" and "at" are usually the most direct translations. This preposition is used to mean "in" in the sense of languages. "Jeg snakker på tysk" means "I am speaking in German."
om - "around" is the literal translation, but this word is also the best translation for "about," most of the time. It can mean "in" when referencing time. "Jeg kommer om to uker" means "I'm coming in two weeks."
i - "in" is the best translation here. It can also mean "for" in time expressions, like "Jeg bor i Norge i én uke" or "I'm living in Norway for one week."
av - "of" is the best translation, but it can mean "off" in some verb constructions and "by" when referring to authorship or the passive voice.
Thanks for the answer. Could you also clarify these for me. "On weekends", "in summer", "in the morning","in 2015".
Various prepositions are used for time expressions. I have no idea if there is a sensible rule somewhere; maybe these things just have to be memorised.
om is used for seasons, periods of the day and future time periods when preceded by a numeral:
“om sommeren, om vinteren, om våren, om høsten”
“om morgenen, om ettermiddagen, om kvelden, om natta”
“om én uke, om to måneder”
i is used for months, years, holidays, decades when referred to with “-årene”, centuries when denoted with an ordinal number and longer historical epochs:
“i mars, i september”
“i jula, i påska”
“i nittiårene” (the 90s)
“i det attende århundret”
“i antikken, i middelalderen”
Also: “i helgene, i fjor, i går, i morgen, i forgårs, i overmorgen, i det øyeblikket” (on weekends, last year, yesterday, tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the day after tomorrow, at that moment)
innen is used for deadlines:
“innen tre dager, innen lørdag”
på is used for days of the weeks, other special days, and decades and centuries when referred to with “-tallet”
“på mandag, på lørdag”
“på julaften, på skjærtorsdag, på 17. mai” = (Christmas Eve, Maundy Thursday, 17 May [Constitution Day])
“på nittitallet” (the 90s)
Also: “på den tida” = “at that time”
Furthermore, “på” is used when expressing that something hasn’t happened for a certain time period:
“Jeg har ikke vært her på to måneder” = “I haven’t been here for two months”.
However, when something hasn’t happened since a certain time point, siden is used instead.
“Jeg har ikke vært her siden mars” = “I haven’t been here since March.”
for is used when expressing for how long something is intended to last:
“han er borte for resten av måneden” = “he’s away for the rest of the month”
for … siden is used for periods in the past when used with a numeral:
“for to uker siden, for ett år siden”
i or ved is used for approximate times on the clock:
“i tretida, ved tretida”
under is used when “during” is used in English:
“under krigen, under krisen” = “during the war, during the crisis”
No preposition is used for dates, times on the clock, periods of the day when the day of the week is specified, and when a period is preceded by “forrige” or “neste”:
“Vi kommer (den) åttende august.”
“Vi kommer klokka to.”
“Vi kommer lørdag kveld.”
“Vi kom forrige uke, forrige måned, forrige mandag, forrige helg”
“Vi kommer neste uke, neste måned, neste år, neste mandag, neste helg, neste sommer“
Furthermore, when specifying how long something lasted or will last, i is used:
“Hun bodde her i to år.” = “She lived here for two years.”
“Hun har bodd her i to år.” = “She has lived here for two years.”
”Hun skal bo her i to år.” = ”She will live here for two years.”
However, when specifying how long it took to complete an action, we use på instead:
“Hun bygde huset på to år“ = ”She built the house in two years”