Georgian lesson: Prepositions
As many people have agreed to continue Georgian lessons, I will be posting them again :) This time we will learn about Georgian prepositions. Here I should note that, unlike English prepositions, Georgian ones come after the noun, not before it :) Many of them even merge with the noun, and this merging is what makes them hard. To remember them better, I will post them by declensions-all of the Georgian prepositions belong to one or another case. Here they are:
Nominative: კაცივით (K'atsivit) (preposition ვით (Vit)-like, belongs to nominative case)
Ergative/Narrative: (This one has no prepositions)
Dative: კაცსავით (K'atsavit), კაცზე (K'atsze), კაცში (K'atsshi), კაცთან (K'atstan) (Here, the only preposition not merging with the noun's suffix is ვით (Vit)-like. This preposition, as you see, belongs to both nominative and dative cases, and you can use them as you wish, both are the same, but please note that in speaking language we prefer to use nominative case. Other prepositions, ზე (Ze)-on, ში (Shi)-in, თან (Tan)-with, all merge with the noun and dative case's suffix "ს" (S) is lost)
Genitive: კაცისთვის (K'atsistvis), კაცისგან (K'atsisgan), კაცისკენ (K'atsisken), კაცისებრ (K'atsisebr), კაცისთანავე (K'atsistanave), კაცის გამო (K'atsis gamo), კაცის მიერ (K'atsis mier) (Genitive case has the most prepositions. You can see that the last two, გამო (Gamo)-because of, and მიერ (Mier)-by, don't merge with the noun, but stand aside. All the other ones, თვის (Tvis)-for, გან (Gan)-from, კენ (Ken)-to (towards), ებრ (Ebr)-like (this one is the old form of ვით (Vit). We now use it only in literature), თანავე (Tanave)-as, all merge with the noun, but don't make it lose the genitive case's suffix, "ის" (Is))
Instrumental: კაცითურთ (K'atsiturt), კაციდან (K'atsidan) (These both prepositions merge with the noun, but ურთ (Urt)-with (it's the old form of "with" that is used only in literature now) doesn't make the noun lose instrumental case's suffix "ით" (It). But the preposition დან (Dan)-from, that is really the preposition გან (Gan)-from, completely merges with the noun and makes the instrumental case's suffix and preposition's first consonant "გ" (G), (კაცითგან (K'atsitgan)), merge with each other and turn into "დ" (D), (კაციდან (K'atsidan)). So, as you see, both genitive and instrumental cases use preposition გან (Gan)-from.
Adverbial: კაცამდე (K'atsamde), კაცამდის (K'atsamdis) (მდე (Mde)-until, and მდის (Mdis)-until (it's just an old form of მდე (Mde)-until, used only in literature now) both merge with the noun and make it lose the adverbial case's suffix "დ" (D).
Vocative: (This one has no prepositions)
Hope you enjoyed :) This lesson is counted as a hard one in Georgian, because even some Georgians don't know which preposition belongs to which case, so don't be scared, but know that if you can't use prepositions properly, your Georgian won't be proper either :) Thanks for reading.
Link to all the posts: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/9660890