"Ĉu li diris al la polico, ke li estas kulpa?"
Translation:Did he tell the police that he was guilty?
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No, it isn't.
si refers to the subject of its verb, so si can never be the subject (or part of the subject*) -- si estas is not possible.
The sentence is ambiguous as to whether e.g. Paul said that Paul was guilty, or whether Paul said that Tim was guilty.
* "part of the subject": this also means that e.g. "Ludoviko kaj sia frato manĝas viandon" is not possible. The subject of "manĝas" is "Ludoviko kaj sia frato", and so if "sia" refers to the subject, it would mean that "sia frato" means the brother of "Ludoviko kaj sia frato"! So, "Ludovico and the brother of "Ludovico and the brother of 'Ludovico and the brother of "Ludovico and the brother of ....." :)
Dear Tmccravy, you ask: "- Did he turn in someone else?" Good question! And the answer could be "yes" (because that would be the normal way to say that)!. Now, if this poor guy wanted to admit that he was himself guilty, the most usual way to say that in Esperanto would be: "Li diris al la polico ke li mem estis kulpa". MEM is the most convenient way to refer to oneself. Now, concerning your idea to use "SI" as a pronoun (and subject of the verb), well, no, as Mizinamo explained it to you!
This is the problem with the "translate and guess" methodology inherent in Duolingo.
Be sure to read the tips and notes. You might search the forum for explanations of "indirect citation" or "indirect speech". I also see that David Lamb has already tried once in this thread to explain it. Have a read through this thread and ask again if there's anything that's still not clear.
In English, we could put it, "Did he say to the police, 'I am guilty'?" But when we use reported speech, ("Did he say that...."), in English we put the verbs in what he is reported to have said in the past tense as well. So the direct speech version, "Did he say to the police, 'I am guilty'?" becomes "Did he tell/say to the police that he was guilty?" in reported speech. Esperanto is different. The verb keeps its direct speech tense when changed to reported speech. So direct speech version in Esperanto is: "Ĉu li diris al la polico, 'Mi estas kulpa'?" Indirect speech version, is what we have here: "Ĉu li diris al la polico, ke li estas kulpa?"