"After the boy fell, his knee started to bleed."
Translation:Post kiam la knabo falis, lia genuo komencis sangi.
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This whole sia thing is by far the most frustratingly difficult part for me. Out of all the languages I've ever studied, Esperanto is the only one that makes this distinction, except maybe Latin (I don't know, since I never got that far). I feel like most of the time I'm just guessing whether its sia or lia/ŝia. Are clauses always separated by a comma? If not, what is the best way to tell where one clause ends and another begins?
Because "the surgery" is a noun phrase which can take a preposition but "the boy fell" is a clause (with a verb) and so needs a conjunction.
If it helps, you can try to replace "before/after" with "because", because there English makes a difference between conjunction and preposition: "because the boy fell" but "because OF the surgery".
So if you would have to say "because of", you would use just "antaŭ/post" in Esperanto for "before/after", while if you would have to say "because" without "of", it will be "antaŭ ol/post kiam" with an additional word in Esperanto.