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https://www.duolingo.com/chnoxis

Ausspracheregeln für Englisch

chnoxis
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Hallo

Gibt es in der englischen Sprache irgendwelche Regeln, womit man erkennen kann, wie ein gewisses Wort richtig ausgesprochen wird?

Im Moment mache ich es so, dass ich das Wort jeweils bei http://www.dict.cc eingebe und mir dann die Aussprache anhöre. Aber das kann doch nicht die Lösung sein? Auch die phonetische Lautschrift hilft da nur bedingt weiter, da man zuerst mal wissen muss wie man sie richtig liest, und dann weiterhin noch ein Wörterbuch bei sich haben muss.

Zwar komme ich mit meiner Vermutung oftmals ganz gut hin, und trotzdem muss ich regelmässig auch festellen, dass ich es falsch ausspreche. Wörter wie "wednesday" sind für einen Anfänger praktisch unmöglich sie von Anfang an richtig zu lesen.

Mir kommt es manchmal wirklich so vor, als ob es in der englischen Sprache keine Regeln geben würde. Dass man das ganze wirklich nur mit "auswendig lernen" lernen kann.

Bis jetzt fand ich auch noch keine brauchbare Internetseite, die solche Regeln aufgelistet hat. Oder ich benutze die falschen Stichworte.

Danke schon mal für die Antworten. :-)

Vor 3 Jahren

18 Kommentare


https://www.duolingo.com/landsend
landsend
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Tut mir leid, das ist die größte Schwäche der englischen Sprache. Im Deutschen muss man ja "nur" die Herkunft des Wortes erkennen, um die Aussprache halbwegs hinzubekommen. Das reicht im Englischen nicht. De facto muss man jedes Wort lernen.

English is weird, it can be understood through tough thorough thought, though. (Und jetzt hör dir mal jedes einzelne Wort an, oder den ganzen Satz bei Google Translate).

Das hier ist auch schön.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/landsend
landsend
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Und hier gibt es einen Absatz über die Diskrepanz zwischen Orthografie und Aussprache.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/chnoxis
chnoxis
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Es gibt also tatsächlich keine wirklich brauchbare Regeln...

Der Englische Satz von dir ist ja echt grausam. Nur schon weil alle Wörter fast gleich geschrieben werden. Aber "Ghoti" muss ich mir merken. Das Wort ist lustig. :-)

Wenn ich mir beim dritten Link all die verschiedenen Schreibweisen pro Laut so anschaue, dann wird man es, wenn überhaupt, wohl erst nach vielen Jahren schaffen, keine Wörter mehr falsch auszusprechen. Zumindest wenn Englisch nicht die eigene Muttersprache ist.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Delta1212
Delta1212
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Es ist fast genauso schwer auch wenn Englisch die Muttersprache ist. Wenn man ein neues Wort liest, kann man oft gar nicht sicher sein, wie man es auspricht. Und wenn man ein neues Wort hört, weiß man nicht wie es geschrieben wird.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/chnoxis
chnoxis
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Hätte ich jetzt nicht gedacht. :-) Aber bei der Suche im Internet bin ich auch auf Texte gestossen, wo sie schrieben, dass es schon mehrmals Versuche gab, die englische Rechtschreibung zu vereinfachen.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/TurtleBeardo
TurtleBeardo
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Delta1212 hat recht. Englisch ist meine Muttersprache und sogar jetzt kann ich ein Wort hören, dass ich nur gelesen habe, und dann erkennen, dass ich es die ganze Zeit im Kopf falsch ausgesprochen habe. Dann fühle ich mich dumm, aber niemand ist perfekt, insbesondere beim englische Aussprache. Geben Sie nicht auf!

Es tut mir leid, falls mein Deutsch schlecht ist, ich schreibe selten auf Deutsch, nur lesen. Ich brauche mehr Übung (selbstverständlich...) :)

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Delta1212
Delta1212
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Es gibt ein Wort, an dem ich mich im Moment nicht erinnere. Ich verstand es, wenn ich es gehört hatte, and auch wenn ich es gelesen hatte, aber ich hatte nicht gewusst, dass sie dasselbe Wort waren.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/TurtleBeardo
TurtleBeardo
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Genau! Zum Beispiel, hatte ich dieses Problem mit dem Wort 'facade' und ein paar Andere. Englisch ist lustig :)

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/chnoxis
chnoxis
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Das Wort "facade" habe ich soeben getestet. Und natürlich falsch ausgesprochen. ;-) Das letzte Wort wo ich wiedermal reingefallen bin, obwohl ich es schon lange kenne, war das Wort "women". Ich dachte das sagt man gleich wie "woman".

Aber gut zu wissen, dass man sich nicht schämen muss, wenn man immer wieder Wörter falsch ausspricht. :-)

@TurtleBeardo: Ihr oder eher dein Deutsch ist im übrigen super. Im Internet ist es mehr verbreitet, dass man "du" zueinander sagt. Besonders in Foren oder im Chat. (IRC usw.) Es kommt natürlich immer darauf an, wer dein Gegenüber ist. Wenn es ein seriöses, geschäftliches E-Mail werden soll, ist "Sie" schon die bessere Wahl. Es gibt auch einige andere Internetportale, wo eher "Sie" benutzt wird. Die sind aber seltener.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Neptunium
Neptunium
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"Das letzte Wort wo ich wiedermal reingefallen bin, obwohl ich es schon lange kenne, war das Wort "women". Ich dachte das sagt man gleich wie "woman"."

In meine Akzent werden sie das gleiche ausgesprochen!

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/TurtleBeardo
TurtleBeardo
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Ah, das ist interessant. Ich komme aus Nordwestengland und 'women' klingt wie 'wimmen' und 'woman' wie 'wumman'. Aber ich denke, das ist wahrscheinlich gewöhnlich.

@chnoxis Danke, ich muss mich daran erinnern :)

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Neptunium
Neptunium
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Es scheint, dass ich "women" und "woman" sage, wie du "woman" sagt.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/TheRealRial
TheRealRial
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Dazu kommt, dass man als Lerner keinen konstant gleichen Input hat. Da mal ein wenig American English, dann ein wenig Received Pronunciation, dann irgendein schottischer Dialekt und viele mehr. Das ist nicht wie das Aufwachsen in der eigenen Sprache, wo man nur dem lokalen Dialekt und den offiziellen Standard wirklich dauerhaft ausgesetzt ist.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Neptunium
Neptunium
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Es gibt Regeln, aber es gibt zu viele Ausnahmen. Ich werde die Regeln auschreiben, aber ich werde auf Englisch es machen, weil es auf Deutsch zu lang dauern wird. Wenn du etwas verstehst nicht, darfst du mich fragen.

I'm inventing my own terms for things linguists already have names for. It's easier for me to just do that.

There are LOTS of exceptions to the rules I'm about to write, but you can use the rules to make an educated guess.

There are five letters that represent vowels in English. Each one has a 'main' pronunciation and a secondary pronunciation. I've listed the main pronunciation first, and then the secondary pronunciation with "2".

a - This makes an /æ/ sound, as in "cat". This sound does not exist in German.* http://vocaroo.com/i/s0LuJdwj2xOq

In Australian English, we have two kinds of “æ” sounds. These are represented by one “æ” sound in other varieties of English.

a (2) - This can also be represented by "ay". This is the sound in "day". It is a diphthong from "e" to "i".* http://vocaroo.com/i/s1Drfn6z75DS

e - A sound similar to "e" in German, but it sounds less like "ay" than the German "e". http://vocaroo.com/i/s0XUr3U1H0T7

e (2) - This can also be represented by "ee" or "ea". It is the same sound as "ie" in German. http://vocaroo.com/i/s0XnrYpw2Nzs

i - This is the same sound as "i" in German. http://vocaroo.com/i/s1Ppgk279VTS

i (2) - This is the same sound as "ei" in German. It can also be written as "ie", or sometimes "ei" in words borrowed from German. http://vocaroo.com/i/s0WRvMY36hHf

o - http://vocaroo.com/i/s0XYkXqsiGQs Many American accents say this the same way as “aw” (see below).

o (2) - On its own it's generally written as "oh", but to my knowledge it's not written like that in any word.

u - This makes a sound similar to German "a". It has a short duration It’s also written as “uh”. http://vocaroo.com/i/s1WbHVIHkYR7

u (2) - This is also written as "oo". http://vocaroo.com/i/s19lM0PvsluC

There is also a short “u” sound, as in “put”: http://vocaroo.com/i/s10K7LyAe9Ab

Other vowels:

ah - This is like German "a". It is longer in duration than the English "u" sound. In British and Australian English this is represented by "ar". It is also represented by "a" in a lot of words. http://vocaroo.com/i/s1jmz7bOOPj2

*At the beginning of a word, the sound “a” makes is often completely unpredictable. /æ/ will usually be right in someone’s accent.

aw - Many American accents don't distinguish between this sound and "o" ie. they’d pronounce "don" and "dawn" the same way. In British and American English this is also represented by "or". http://vocaroo.com/i/s0pbpPHEz8Bw

er – In a word, this is the vowel in "her". At the end of a word (“her” is an exception), it’s pronounced “uh” in Australian and British English, and the same as a pirate “argh” in American English. http://vocaroo.com/i/s1TgM3ePcytp


Assume that all vowels make their main pronunciation unless indicated otherwise (I'll get to that). The names of the letters themselves are always pronounced with the letter's secondary pronunciation ("y" is pronounced before "u" though).

Consonants generally behave as expected in English. The main exceptions to English spelling are the vowels. English spelling rules regarding vowels are very similar to Dutch:

Vowel + consonant + vowel – This first vowel is pronounced with its secondary spelling.

Vowel + consonant/consonant cluster + e (at the end of a word) – A single “e” at the end of a word in English is NEVER pronounced as a rule, except in a few borrowed words (e.g. café). The “e” indicates that the vowel before the consonant is pronounced with its secondary pronunciation. This is the same concept as doubling a vowel in Dutch.

Vowel + two of the same consonants… - The vowel is pronounced with its main pronunciation. What comes after the consonants is irrelevant.

If a vowel other than “e” appears at the end of a word on its own, you can’t really predict how it will behave, but the secondary pronunciation is a good guess. Main pronunciations of vowels rarely appear at the end of a word, except “I” (in which case it’s normally spelled “y”).

A lot of words borrowed from French have vowel combinations I haven’t mentioned. Those vowel combinations are generally unpredictable.


Consonants:

The following are pronounced the same as in German:

B, D, G, H, K, L, M, N, P,

Otherwise:

C – Usually the same as “k”. It might sometimes be pronounced as “s”.

Ck – The same as “k”. When we need to double “k”, it generally becomes “ck” instead.

Ed – If “ed” appears at the end of a verb in the past tense, the “e” is usually silent. If the consonant before “ed” is unvoiced, then “d” is pronounced as “t”.

F – The same as German “v”.

J – This sound doesn’t exist in German. It can be approximated by saying “d” before a vocalised “sch” sound.

K – The same as in German

Le (at the end of a word) – Pronounced as “el”.

Q – The letter itself is pronounced as “kyoo”, but the sound it makes is pronounced as “kw” (with an English “w”)

R – The sound represented by “r” in most varieties of “mainstream” English doesn’t exist in German. hard to describe how to pronounce, so it’s probably better if you just looked it up on Youtube. “R” is NEVER pronounced at the end of a word or before a consonant in British and Australian English (as well as part of the US) as a rule (because it’s hard to say it there), but it reappears when a word ending with “r” is followed by a vowel.

“R” may be the same as the German “r” or Italian “r” in different parts of Britain and Ireland.

S – This is the same is German ß. It does NOT change to “sch” before a consonant as in German. If it appears at the end of a plural noun or a conjugated verb, it’s pronounced as English “z”/German “s” if the consonant before it is voiced.

T – Mostly the same as in German with some exceptions. When it’s between two vowels in American English and informal Australian English, it’s pronounced as a “d” (it sounds similar to an Italian “r” to some people, but it’s not the same sound). In standard British and Australian English it should be the same as German “t” at all times, although in some dialects in England it’s pronounced as a glottal stop. In Australia we also don’t aspirate “t” when it’s at the end of a word (as in “lot”). This is often misheard as a glottal stop, but it’s really more similar to a final “t” in Cantonese (as opposed to a final “k” in Cantonese, which IS a glottal stop I believe)

V – The same as German “w”.

W – This sound doesn’t exist in German. I think the closest sound in German to English “w” is “h”, expect “w” is pronounced at the lips. There are two ways I recommend you try saying “w”: 1) Try saying “b”, but don’t let your lips touch. 2) Say “ooo” then say “aah” without pausing between the two sounds. It should be impossible not to pronounce “w’ if you shift from “oo” to “ah” quickly enough. Then try to say the same thing, with without the “oo”: http://vocaroo.com/i/s1r3G6cMW9lY

X – The same is “ks” (or “kß” in German spelling).

Y – Generally same as German “j”. If it’s at the end of a word, it’s pronounced as “i”. If it’s pronounced as “i”, it changes back to an “i” if the word’s spelling is changed e.g. “worry” = “worries”. At the end of one-syllable words, “y” is often pronounced as German “ei”.

Z – The same as German “s”. I can’t think of a situation in English where it appears before a consonant, but if it did I can’t imagine it would change to a “sch” sound. I’ll edit this post if I think of an example.

Sh – The same as German “sch”.

Th – There are two “th” sounds, but the only difference is that one is voiced (like “d”) and the other is unvoiced (like “t”). Contrary to popular belief, you do not have to stick your tongue between your teeth to say “th”, you only have to touch your tongue to the bottom of your front teeth. Saying voiced “th” is exactly the same as saying “d”, expect your tongue moves in a slightly lower position. Say “d” right now and see how it feels. Your tongue should touch the line between the top of your front teeth and your gum. Keep saying “d”, but do it in the middle of your front teeth. It will still sound very similar to “d”. Now just keep doing the same thing, but lower your tongue slightly until it touches the bottom of your front teeth. That’s a voiced “th”. http://vocaroo.com/i/s0ilkFmp4nGd

Do the same thing with “t” and you’ll say an unvoiced “th”. http://vocaroo.com/i/s0H0g824yQjB

If you really can’t say “th”, just you can say “d/t” instead, or even “v/f”. These are much more acceptable than “z” or “s” to a native speaker’s ear.

Ch – Similar to “tsch” in German.

Gh – This used to be the same as German “ch”. However, in most varieties of modern English that sound doesn’t exist anymore, so “gh” is generally silent. It can sometimes sound like “f’ as well. Unfortunately there’s no way to tell if it’s silent or if it’s pronounced as “f”. It’s still pronounced as German “ch” in parts of Scotland though. You can often recognise an English-German cognate if you look for “gh” eg. When you replace “gh” with “ch”, it becomes obvious that “though” is related to “doch”.

Vowels before “gh” are generally completely unpredictable.

There is a voiced “sh’ sound (French “j”) that has no standard way to be written e.g. “s” in “measure”. Fortunately it doesn’t appear in many words.


So if you ever happen to travel through time, you can use the above rules to very accurately describe how English has spoken hundreds of years ago. Unfortunately, English spelling has a lot of exceptions because a) the pronunciation has changed in the last few hundred years, b) words borrowed from foreign languages have generally kept their original spellings, c) for a lot of English’s history there has been no standard spelling, so different authors used different rules. In the past some authors actually showed of their English skills by intentionally mixing up their spelling as much as possible. If you read some English from a few hundred years ago, you’ll see that authors used multiple spellings of the same word in the same text! Shakespeare even made a point of never spelling his own name the same way twice.

Here are some words that are pronounced exactly like they’re spelled: in, at, on, game, roof, fan, bike, case, maze, shave, pick, rot, rote, hat, hate, stop, yack, sock, sack, site, sit, pant, shit, sheet, shite, adding, fade, hundred, if, text, spoken,

If “have” were spelled the same way as it’s spoken, it’d be spelled “hav”. If it was pronounced the same way as it was written, it’d be pronounced just like in “behave”. Incidentally, “behave” is pronounced exactly as you’d expect from the above rules.

Looking at “above”, you’d expect “o” to be pronounced as in “no”. “Above” should really be spelled “abuv”.

There are lots of vowel and consonant combinations that are always pronounced the same way eg. “a” as “ay” in “ang”. I’m sure I missed a lot.

I wrote this based on what I could remember off the top of my head. Feel free to correct me if I wrote anything wrong. You can also me question me about anything.

I have an Australian accent, and my recordings reflect that. People from different regions may pronounce different sounds slightly differently.

If you want to hear a word pronounced, you can go to www.forvo.com . Anyone can make a recording and upload it. You can then see where the recorder is from on a map. This is also a great way to compare accents. I have an account there with the same name as mine here.

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Neptunium
Neptunium
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https://www.duolingo.com/chnoxis
chnoxis
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Wow... What for a great explanation! And with audio samples. Thank you very much! :D

That is really helpful for a English learner. It makes the correct pronunciation not easy but a little easier.

Do you study languages?

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Neptunium
Neptunium
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I'm studying German and Chinese, but I haven't done any linguistics courses. Most of the rules I wrote were things I was taught or figured out when I was learning to spell as a kid. I remembered most of those rules when I was learning the Dutch spelling rules, which are very similar to English (except Dutch actually follows its rules!).

Vor 3 Jahren

https://www.duolingo.com/Delta1212
Delta1212
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And just to confuse things more, your example of the 'a' in 'ang' always being pronounced as "ay" doesn't hold for me, as around me (I'm American) the 'a' is almost always pronounced in that cluster like the a in cat.

Vor 3 Jahren