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If you were to go to Austria by car or public transport for a short period of time, you would say "Ich fahre nach Österreich", and "Ich gehe nach Österreich" can mean that you're walking to Austria, but it is correct even if you're not actually walking to Austria. It could mean that you're going there in order to live (and work) there. In that case, the mode of transport is irrelevant.
- For most countries the correct preposition is "nach": nach Deutschland, Frankreich, Österreich, Schweden, ...
- some countries take "in": in die Schweiz, in die Vereinigten Staaten, in die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate
- some countries (especially islands) take "auf": "auf die Malediven, auf die Bahamas"
The default is 'nach', you have to learn the exceptions by heart. If the different prepositions don't go into your head, just travel to Great Britain. You can say "nach Großbritannien", "ins Vereinigte Königreich" or "auf die Britische Insel" :)