Georgian lesson: Sentence making
Today we'll talk about how to make simple sentences in Georgian with verbs ქონა/ყოლა (Qona/Kh'ola)-to have, and ყოფნა (Kh'opna)-to be.
მე ვარ კაცი (Me var K'atsi)-I'm a man/I'm the man (Remember, Georgian has no articles)
ის არის ქალი (Is aris Qali)-She's a/the woman
In these two sentences pronouns მე (Me) and ის (Is) are subjects, კაცი (K'atsi) and ქალი (Qali) are objects, thus, "to be" is a subject verb. To be sure that pronouns are subjects, let's change them into nouns and if they change in nominative or ergative/narrative cases, they're subjects:
მე ვარ კაცი (Me var K'atsi)-> კაცი ვარ კაცი (K'atsi var K'atsi) (As you see, მე (Me) turning into კაცი (K'atsi), was put in a nominative case, thus, it is a subject)
მე მაქვს ჩანთა (Me maqvs chanta)-I have a bag.
Here მე (Me) is an object, and ჩანთა (Chanta) is a subject. To be sure in this, let's change მე (Me) into a noun again. If it puts into dative, it's an object.
მე მაქვს ჩანთა (Me maqvs chanta)-> კაცს მაქვს ჩანთა (K'atss maqvs chanta) (As you see, მე (Me) turned into an object and was put into dative form, კაცს (Katss), so it's an object)
REMEMBER! Nominative case can be either subject or object, ergative/narrative is always subject, and dative is always object. If you see ergative/narrative, know it's subject, if you see dative, it's always object, and if you see nominative, define is it either with ergative or dative case. If with ergative, it's object, if with dative, it's subject.
Hope you enjoyed :) thanks for reading :)