Is there a systematic approach to this? because i have noticed that in some words "g" sound like "y", and i have also noticed a tendency for "y"s to be added before "e"s at the end of a word, ex: "Frankrike" "bake" "rike" etc. Is the whole "g" and "y" thing like the "g" in Spanish where the g changes sound depending on what the vowel following it is? Ex: "ga"="ga", "go"="go", "gi"="hi", "gu"="gu", "ge"="he"
I too have noticed the little Y/J sound that often precedes E at the end of a word =0 It's similar to the Slavic languages, at least Ukrainian and Russian (I'm not too familiar with any of the others, I'm afraid =S) What I'd like to know is if this is done intentionally and, if so, is it a common (native) feature in all of the Nordic languages or rather due to close contact with Russians over the past millennium or so.
This happens because of a linguistic process called assimilation. When followed by a front vowel (a vowel produced towards the front of the mouth) such as 'i', 'u', or sometimes 'e', the preceding consonant will be moved forward to more closely match, or assimilate, the vowel's phonological location. Thus, a consonant such as 'g', which is normally pronounced towards the back of the mouth, is moved much further forwards towards the hard or soft palate when followed by an 'i', and becomes something more like 'gyi'. In some cases and some languages, the 'g' may disappear completely and only the 'y' is still audible. This seems to be what has happened in Norwegian.
This is not an intentional phenomenon; it occurs across all languages and follows fairly predictable rules. Sometimes it actually changes the spelling of the word, but more often, it affects only rhe pronunciation. Assimilation is also the process that explains why the letter 's' in Norwegian is being pronounced as 'sh' when followed by a front vowel.
No, because 'skilpadda' is the definite form, and when the possessive is placed before the noun we use the indefinite form. There is also a mismatch between the masculine possessive and the feminine inflection of the noun.
These are ways to convey your meaning with similar sentence structure:
"Jeg gir sønnen mi skilpadde." (f, possessive first)
"Jeg gir sønnen min skilpadde." (m, possessive first)
"Jeg gir sønnen skilpadda mi." (f, noun first)
"Jeg gir sønnen skilpadden min." (m, noun first)
Old English used to pronounce G before a front vowel as Y. 'Give' (giefan) would have been pronounced 'yive' had we not used the Old Norse form with its hard G. How strange that Norwegian started to fall into the same habit of Gj- and G- having the same sound itself.