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Hm, I don't think you understood that aus is actually part of the trennbares verb (seperable verb) "aussehen". You don't translate "aus", it is not a word, it is a piece of the word "aussehen" which means to appear or look like something. With seperable verbs, you take the prefix off and put it at the end.
To me there's an imaginary "hier" at the end of the sentence: "Er sieht klein aus hier" makes much more sense, but trying to save time hier was omitted by natives (hier was implied from now on) and that is how separate verbs were born... I'm just guessing but it helped me understand the phrase and how it was made, hope it helps others too
No, you'd say : Er sieht klein aus. There are many things that make German different to English an one of those is what they call in german Trennbare Verben. The verb is aussehen but the preposition (aus) goes at the end when aussehen is conjugated. "Er sieht klein aus" - He looks small / "Er kann klein aussehen" - He can look small. I hope you understood, surely you'll find more information on the web !
good idea. For the time being, you can look those up e.g. at leo.org, in this case https://dict.leo.org/pages/flecttab/flectionTable.php?kvz=4dkrADn71HeCbYC86wUP8lumz53RnXJXdziIEKudBDG0_2F424Jr9KvWOd6A7bUGR0nbEc99gbfCnYCpu7Vdw0tXKb6AOwM1Qd9_Ri8u4uEUnUUs29L9Bz0Sf34W7saDUoiOdloeUmdB-gXvrFQ9E3txOZ2m3VfT168bcvoa9UcyflaPzkNo9IyC_zg2nZdDgNzshv2-JJdyi9G5zVLOQew&lp=ende&lang=de
"aus" alone is a preposition that in most cases is translated as "aus".
But here "aus" is a part of the verb "aussehen" = "to look". In German some verbs are splittable, i.e. fall into separate pieces in many forms. This is what happens here.
"sehen" is "to (actively) look", like "to watch".
"aussehen" is "to look (passively)" (as in "look like ..."). These are two different verbs which unfortunately coincide in English.