"What is the meaning of justice?"
Translation:Wat is de betekenis van rechtvaardigheid?
Bedoeling is the purpose/intention kind of "meaning", so for example Oh sorry, het was niet mijn bedoeling u te raken (Oh sorry, I didn't mean to hit you). Note the Dutch doel (goal) in bedoeling. Betekenis is a "content" kind of meaning (what is the meaning of this word, what does this setback mean for reaching our deadline).
Having made that distinction, I'm a little bit in doubt whether both meanings can be used here. I mean, I guess you could wonder why there is such a thing as justice (what's the meaning of having it in the first place?).