Context is gold in these cases, but the meaning can also be made clear with the use of prepositions:
"å dele på" = to share
"å dele opp" = to divide
However, the above sentence sounds the most natural without a preposition, and I'd say the meaning is pretty clear without it as well.
It's not a sentence I'd use to describe a couple who were going their separate ways and in the process of deciding who's keeping what. Then I would say something along the lines of "Paret fordeler sine felles eiendeler". If I wanted to communicate that one of them gets the bed and the other the table, then I'd phrase it with them as separate entities, not as a couple.
'Board' is an old term (in English) for meals provided, particularly to renters/boarders, as in the phrase 'room and board' (the 'room' implies a bed, but is likely not specific enough here). In this case, 'bed and board' would be a more literal translation.
I guess I am asking if 'bed and board' would be an acceptable translation.
Yes and no.
It depends on which dialect of English is most influential in your learning.
Noun phrases such a 'the couple' and 'the team' were at one time seen to be 3rd person plural forms and would always receive the plural verb (i.e. The couple/ the team share...). American English often does not take this stance and views these noun phrases as 3rd person singular and would have something like 'The couple / the team shares...). Because of this, both forms are technically correct. But personal experience and use will make one form more correct for any particular speaker.
As "the couple" is a singular noun representing two individuals, both "share" and "shares" are correct. This is a case of language evolving in that the collective noun used to take a plural verb ("share" - because it represents two people, and acts like a pronoun rather than a noun), but is now beginning to take a singular verb ("shares" - because it is now used only as a noun, not a pronoun).
Is the English term "board and bed" too old for you to have known when you wrote this question? "Board"="food and drink" and comes from the Old English; it probably shares a root with "bordet". Anyway, as this sentence reads, the English "board and bed" makes more sense than "table and bed," which is too literal.
In my comment above, I meant that the translation was too literal - word for word, instead of idea for idea. "Table and bed" sounds a little odd in English, while "board and bed" sounds like English. There is no metaphorical sense to the phrase in English, it simply harks back to our common linguistic roots for the word which represents "food and drink." If I said "They share board and bed" anyone listening would think that they live together in such a way that their food, drink, and sleeping arrangements are mutual.
I understood the sentence to mean they share A table and A bed, which is a perfectly legitimate english sentence (I know the article is missing in the Norwegian, but I think the English sentence needs it).
To say they share board and bed sounds wrong to me as the phrase 'bed and board' is (in my experience) only really used in a formal arrangement such as hotel or lodging where one offers or receives bed and board.
My initial reaction was that's wrong, because "couple" is a collective noun, but after some research I believe you're actually right. https://jakubmarian.com/a-couple-of-is-vs-a-couple-of-are-in-english/
This is not necessarily true. It is common for collective nouns to be treated as singular but in some contexts it is required to use the plural. "The board makes its decision" "The board cast their votes".
In the second case there is an omitted "members" (i.e. "the board members") which forces the use of "cast their" instead of "casts its". Technically you could also say "The board casts its votes" but it places the emphasis onto the fact that the board is a singular. If that's the idea then sure, but in most cases I would imagine "The board cast their votes" is the intended emphasis.
"The couple share a table" puts the focus on the members of the couple. "The couple shares a table" puts the focus on the couple as an entity.
Both are correct, but have slightly different emphasis. I would say most commonly one would say "shares" as to me if you are calling them a couple you are most likely looking at them from a distance and objectively.
There's always so much in Duo'. Who are this couple! And why do they share a table? And a bed? Are they just two people thrown together in the milieu of Oslo life or are they simple, earthy, Norwegian farming people...sea-weed collectors from Valdres maybe, too poor to have their own table each? Perhaps they are in fact one single person who is riven between separate personalities... fluid as one says nowadays? Please explain.