In French, tu is singular and casual, whereas vous is formal and/or plural. I'm not certain, but I think tu in Potugese is the same as tu in Frenche, and that the other words you mentioned are similar to the French vous. Someone please correct me if I am wrong or if you can add more detail.
tu and você both refer to the pronoun "you (singular)" but they have different conjugations. for example: tu comeste - você comeu tu comes - você come tu comerás - você comerá as opposed to the pronoun "tu" that has its own conjugation "você" always works exactly as the third person of the singular form "ele/ela" ele/ela comeu ele/ela come ele/ela comerá
both of them are likely used in Brazil but people don't really respect this rule so you'll hear them using the conjugation of "você" for the pronoun "tu" ALL the time.
vós and vocês are just the plural form of tu and você, it refers to more than one person and it works exactly like the first example: vós comestes - vocês comeram vós comeis - vocês comem vós comereis - vocês comerão so in this case the pronoun "vocês" use the conjugation of the the third person of the plural form "eles/elas" eles/elas comeram eles/elas comem eles/elas comerão
that's why it's easier learning how to use você instead of tu, but if you're prefer the Portugal version of the language they are very strict to grammar rules and - as far as I know - use tu and vós with the correct conjugation :)