Actually, as I understand it anyway, English is an exception there: most Indo-European languages (and I'm pretty certain all Germanic languages) don't make any grammatical distinction between "is s/he" and "does s/he", relying on context or emphasis alone to differentiate between the two meanings.
It could be, couldn't it? On a more general timescale? For example, in the middle ages when water couldn't be trusted so everyone drank beer, it would be a legitimate, surprised-sounding question about someone who drinks water instead of beer. I.e:
-"Did you know John only drinks water. Never beer."
-"He drinks water instead of beer!!???"
Is this how that question would be phrased in Norwegian? Because if so it should really be an accepted translation.
While I'm definitely not an expert on Norwegian, I would presume this would work the same way in Norwegian as in English (and Dutch for that matter, which is in some ways quite similar to Norwegian): You don't change the sentence at all, but use intonation to indicate that you're surprised and/or expecting an answer, so
"Han drikker vann i stedet for øl?"