"The dog loves you."
Translation:Köpek sizi sever.
This sentence does not make sense in Turkish. Since "the dog" is the one who loves, you need to use it as a nominative and add accusative ending to the thing that dog loves- here it is "you". Therefore you use it as "seni" or "sizi".
Where does the "Seni" or "Sizi" come from? Is it a case of "sen" or "siz", which case?
What's with the er ending on "sever"? Still a beginner with Turkish and the first time I have come across it.
The present tense is formed a bit "irregular" - there are multiple rules for words of different length / syllables in the stem, and a few "special"(*) words. I found a link explaining the three different rules applied to endings for the present tense:
Basically the three cases are:
1) word stem ends in vowel -> large vowel harmony (ı, i, u, ü)
2) one-syllable word stem that ends in consonant -> small vowel harmony (e, a)
3) multi-syllable word stem that ends in consonant -> large vowel harmony
- Regarding special words: I am not entirely sure right now but I do believe there are a few (less than 10) exceptions to the case 2) where one-syllable-words ending in a consonant take a letter in the ending that is not e/a. You'll eventually run into them - or not, if I remember incorrectly ;)
The first sentence you wrote could in theory work in spoken language, but not in formal written. Verbs are final.
The second sentence is wrong because you used the wrong case. "size" is dative (to you). "Sizi" is the accusative and is used as a direct object.
Why no one is saying why are we using sever instead of seviyor??? Why using sever in the present tense??? And when should we translate the present continuous as present tense
Patience, arkadaşım :) Some things are best learned by examples first, grammar rules later. Otherwise you can't learn the basic grammar.
To answer your question: For general descriptions of an action that lasts over a longer time period, the "geniş zaman" (present tense) is more appropriate. "Köpek seni seviyor" is more like an observation when you are meeting someone with a dog and the dog really seems to like you in this moment. Nevertheless, you could say "seviyor" and it would not be wrong and people would understand you. But the way the present vs. present continous is used, the translation with "sever" is more accurate.