"Fógraítear an t-uachtarán nua."
Translation:The new president is announced.
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In English you can say either "the cover of the book" or "the book's cover". You can say "the man's hat" or "the hat of the man". Whichever construction you use, the "genitive noun" gets a definite article. (Note that "book" and "man" each carry the genitive markers "'" or "of").
In Irish, these sentences are clúdach an leabhair and hata an fhir. The genitive noun take a definite article, and that article applies to the whole phrase.
In "The President of Ireland", "Ireland" is in the genitive ("of" is a genitive marker) and takes a definite article - na hÉireann, and that definite article makes the whole phrase definite. (Note that Éire is a bit unusual in that it doesn't take a definite article in the nominative, but it may take an article in the genitive). Essentially, you don't put a definite article before Uachtarán for the same reason that you don't put one before "cover" or "hat" in "the book's cover". or "the man's hat" - the article on the genitive noun does the job.
Uachtarán is not "in the genitive" in Uachtarán na hÉireann - Éire is, and Uachtarán is still in the nominative. That's an important distinction.
an tUachtarán - "the President"
an t-uachtarán - "the president"
Uachtarán na hÉireann - "the President of Ireland"
ainm an Uachtaráin - "the President's name"/"the name of the President"