It is not a sentence, but rather a phrase without any context, quite a common thing on Duolingo. If you want to know whether it could exist in English, you must imagine a context: "There is a new family on our block. I was just speaking with one of them." "Really, with which one?" "With the father." I don't know that it is anything I have ever said in my half century, but I certainly might have in this or a few other contexts.
True but the phrase, as it stood on the day that I made the comment was ambiguous. I believe it's been changed since. As nearly as I can remember, only one answer was accepted (a father) and it was impossible to tell, given the Ukrainian, just what English answer they were looking for.
«З татом» is closer to "with dad", it is less formal way of speaking than «з батьком».